Subject Source: Getty Thesaurus of Geographic NamesScope Note: Was the capital of the powerful Mongolian monarchy in the 10th and 12th centuries. It was replaced and reinstalled as the national capital several times over the centuries. It was damaged by occupying European forces in 1860. It was a battleground in the Chinese-Japanese war 1937-1945; the city surrendered to the Communists in 1949. Capitol of the Mongol Empire, at the present-day site of Beijing, China.